Mumbai Soujourn

We have some what settled down in, Andheri West, our sojourn in Mumbai. In the meantime, my wife had made some friends in the same floor of the building and they were our neighbors.  Deviyani and Ambesh lived in the adjoining apartment. They had two little sons. On the same floor, right opposite to us was Anupama and Baldev and, they had three daughters of the age group between ten years and sixteen years.

Both the men were business people and they left home very early and returned very late in the night. Both these families were vegetarians. The friendship between wives had developed to such warm depths that almost every day we used to get one dish of food cooked by them. I met the men only on Sundays and, that too in the garden area of the building.  

During the first few months, we made it a habit to visit our friends in Bandra on Friday and Saturday nights.

On some Friday evenings, we had company; five to six of the Sri Lankans studying for the second Mates and my batch mates visited us at Andheri. My wife being the only female did not have a problem cooking because many of the younger students took turns and helped her in the kitchen.

They had very late dinner and returned to their boarding houses, in Bombay Central and in Chembur.

It was good company, all the way.

Sinking of M.V. DERBYSHIRE on September 09, 1980

When we look at maritime disasters and loss of lives at sea; from RMS Titanic to more recent ones, such as that of “Costa Concordia”, for some reason or the other, my thoughts always drift to that of M.V. Derbyshire.  

Derbyshire was launched in late 1975 and entered service in June 1976, as the last ship of the Bridge-class combination carrier, originally named Liverpool Bridge. Liverpool Bridge and En
glish Bridge (later Worcestershire) were built by Seabridge for Bibby Line. The ship was laid up for two of its four years of service life.[

In 1978, Liverpool Bridge was renamed Derbyshire, the fourth vessel to carry the name in the company's fleet. On 11 July 1980, on what turned out to be the vessel's final voyage, Derbyshire left Sept Isles, Canada, her destination being Kawasaki, Japan. Derbyshire was carrying a cargo of 157,446 tonnes of iron ore.

On 9 September 1980, Derbyshire hove-to in Typhoon Orchid some 230 miles from Okinawa, and was overwhelmed by the tropical storm killing all aboard. Total loss of lives was 44 including two women. Derbyshire never issued a Mayday distress message.

The search for Derbyshire commenced on 15 September 1980 and was called off six days later when no trace of the vessel was found, and it was declared lost. Six weeks after Derbyshire sank, one of the vessel's lifeboats was sighted by a Japanese tanker.[

In June 1994, the wreck of Derbyshire was found at a depth of 4 km, spread over 1.3 km. An additional expedition spends over 40 days photographing and examining the debris field looking for evidence of what sank the ship. Ultimately it was determined that waves crashing over the front the ship had sheared off the covers of small ventilation pipes near the bow. Over the next 30+ hours, seawater had entered through the exposed pipes into the forward section of the ship, causing the bow to slowly ride lower and lower in the water. Eventually, the bow was completely exposed to the full force of the rough waves which caused the massive hatch on the first cargo hold to buckle inward allowing hundreds of tons of water to enter in moments. As the ship started to sink, the second, then third hatches also failed dragging the ship underwater. As the ship sank, the water pressure caused the ship to be twisted and torn apart by implosion.

Repost - Tupaia: Captain Cook's Polynesian Navigator and Translator

Captain james Cook visited the Hawaiian islands in 1778. When he came ashore, the people mistook him for one of their gods. This illustration shows the Hawaiians offering gifts to the English captain. 

On his first voyage of Pacific exploration Cook had the services of a Polynesian navigator, Tupaia, who drew a hand-drawn Chart of the islands within 2,000 miles (3,200 km) radius (to the north and west) of his home island of Ra'iatea. Tupaia had knowledge of 130 islands and named 74 on his Chart. Tupaia had navigated from Ra'iatea in short voyages to 13 islands. He had not visited western Polynesia, as since his grandfather’s time the extent of voyaging by Raiateans had diminished to the islands of eastern Polynesia. His grandfather and father had passed to Tupaia the knowledge as to the location of the major islands of western Polynesia and the navigation information necessary to voyage to Fiji, Samoa and Tonga.

Tupaia took Taiata, a servant-boy, with him on HMS Endeavour. Taiata’s experiences were described in the officers’ journals only occasionally, but this engraving of him has survived, based on a lost sketch by Sydney Parkinson. "The Lad Taiyota, Native of Otaheite, in the Dress of his Country," engraved by R. B. Godfrey. S. Parkinson, A Voyage to the South Seas (1773), pl. IX, fp.66. © The Trustees of the British Museum. 

Tupaia was a respected figure in the Society Islands and something of a virtuoso. A member of the elite arioi society of travelers and performers for the god ‘Oro, he was a ritual specialist, skillful navigator, and negotiator. He had also witnessed in 1767 the extraordinary visit of the first ship from beyond the Pacific: Samuel Wallis’s Dolphin. He knew something of what to expect from these visitors. He established a friendship with the naturalist Joseph Banks, helped Cook in relations with chiefs and learned from the ship’s artists how to draw in European style. Near the end of the Endeavour’s stay he announced he was going to accompany them to England. Cook and Banks, on the lookout for a guide, felt he "was the likeliest person to answer our purpose."

Polynesian war canoes at Tahiti sketched by Cook's artist 

After leaving Tahiti, the Endeavour made several stops among the Society Island archipelago. In each place Tupaia used the correct ceremonial forms when greeting the chiefs, easing some of the tensions of these early meetings across cultural divides. In August they departed, as Banks said, "in search of what chance and Tupaia might direct us to."

They steered southward towards New Zealand, to try to determine if it was the northern tip of a great southern continent. Tupaia drew maps and read the currents, weather, and sky. On reaching New Zealand, Tupaia helped establish working relationships between the Maori people and the European visitors. He was able to translate, as the language of the Society Islands was the original basis of the language of the Maori. His lineage was important: he was from the Maori’s ancestral homeland, Hawaiki (Ra’iatea), and was seen to hold substantial spiritual power (mana). There were still violent clashes and misunderstandings. Tupaia, though, created a lasting impression on Maori communities and it was the great priest, rather than Cook or Banks, who was most persistently asked after when voyagers stopped by.

After establishing that the two islands of New Zealand were not the bountiful continent they sought, Cook and his men departed for the east coast of Australia. In April 1770, Cook tried to land with a few officers, the naturalist Sir Joseph Banks, and Tupaia in a bay that would later form part of Sydney. Two men (of the Gweagal or Eora people) met them with shouts and spears. Tupaia tried in vain to find any words in common and Cook offered gifts, but the visitors only managed to get ashore after firing on the men. Without the ability to obtain food and information from the locals, Cook had to continue on up the coast. Tupaia was of help in northern Australia, when he was able to establish a trusting relationship with the Guugu-Yimithirr people.

From Australia, the voyagers made their way to Dutch Batavia (present-day Jakarta). There, in December 1770, Tupaia and his servant Taiata fell ill. Dismayed at ever having left Tahiti, Tupaia died a few days after Taiata.

An Officer and a Gentleman

Time passed without any significant events – and it was the month of May. Although I had a student visa, my wife went on a tourist visa and it was due to expire during the month of May,1985.

In Bombay, immigration and visa matters were handled by the Special branch of the Police. One day I went there with my wife for the purpose of requesting for an extension.

As usual the place was crowded and we waited for our turn. We went into the office around 9.00 a.m. and our turn to meet one of the officers came up around 11.00a.m.. I went upto the Officer and began to explain our problem, first of all he did not listen to me and suddenly got on his feet and shouted at me, “You should know that we can not extend tourist visa and, you must send your wife back to Sri Lanka and re-apply for the visa and come back here” and after saying that, settled back on his seat and called the next person waiting to meet him.

When I turned back I saw that my wife was in tears because we were put into a very helpless and a very embarrassing position by the Officer concerned.  I consoled her and told her not to worry that this was not the end of the world and that we will look for some one who will help us in this matter. On one side of the Office, there were two separate rooms. At the entrance to one of those rooms, there was a name board and it said D.D. Jog Deputy Commissioner of Police.

I walked up to the entrance and spoke with the police constable who was on guard. I told him that I need to see the D.C.P. He then asked me whether I knew him. I said “Yes” and, I was allowed in.                                                                              

As I entered I saw a Police Officer in uniform seated at his table. He was busy studying a file. I stood still and waited for him to look up. He looked up and asked me “Yes, what can I do for you?”. I addressed him as Sir, and told him about my purpose of coming to Bombay and that the exams are due in few months and that I have to get my wife’s visas extended. 

He rang the bell and the same officer who rejected us came to answer the bell. He saluted the D.C.P. and stood to attention. The D.C.P. and told him “this gentleman has his exams coming up and he has no time to waste in this office. You do the needful and extend the visa of his spouse and make sure that he does not have to come back.”

I thanked the D.C.P. with all my heart and went and met with the Officer concerned.  When I returned to him he had taken off his Lion’s skin and hung it out. Sheepishly he told me, “Why you had to go to him, I would have done it myself”. Any way the job was done thanks to Mr. Jog  and until I left India I did not have to go that office. However, prior to leaving the Office after obtaining the visas, I went upto the D.C.P. and thanked him. He said to me “You don’t have to thank me, I only did my job.”  

The Police-Immigration Office close the Metro Cinema in Mumbai

Although, I knew Mr.. Alan Thorley, ex-D.C.P. Greater Bombay was well-known to me but I never mentioned his name anywhere.    

This incident added a page to life’s book of experience. More significantly, it paved way for us to meet an Officer and a Gentleman in the Indian Police Force.

Mr. Jog, I salute you! I do not know where you are, today. But my respect for you, still remains!

My Salutations to the Government of India

Capt. T.K. Joseph was the Principal of the College. He was residing in Santa Cruz and on some days we travelled together in the train from Bandra to Reay Road. At times, we talked about matters with regard to studies and also about past and present Sri Lankan students of the L.B.S. Nautical College. He always inquired after our welfare.

As an overseas student I paid Indian Rupees 500 as the capitation fee in addition to the same fees that any other Indian student in my class paid. In other parts of the world that did not happen. There was always a huge difference in fees between locals and overseas students. For this and for educating us I always have my salutations to the Government of India.   

In 1984 and up to about October 1985, I paid only 85.00 Indian Rupees per month as the tuition fees for college. My friends in Bandra have told me that, for a Montessori student in Bandra they paid about 100.00 Indian Rupees at that time. There was a big shortage of lecturers in the College. Due to this reason, Capt. Joseph, Capt. Rewari and Capt. Subramaniam had to work very hard. Apart from lecturing they also had to do much administrative work and marking of test papers, etc.,

Once when I was travelling in the train with Capt. Joseph, I told him, “Sir, I understand that, Bandra Montessori classes charge 100.00 Rupees from each child and I pay only 85.00 Rupees for First Mates F.G. tuitions. Why don't you suggest to the Indian Government to increase the tuition for us from Rs. 85.00 to atleast Rs 350.00 as well as the fees of other grades proportionately. With that, they can then increase the salaries of the present staff of the College and be able to absorb more lecturers.” 

He began to laugh and said “I am very glad that it came from an overseas student.” Then he went on to state that he can not do such things on his own but has to communicate with the Ministry of Transport of Central Government. However, I had a feeling that, he took serious note of my suggestion.   

Moving to our Temporary Dwelling in Andheri West, Mumbai

I went to the College, paid the fees and enrolled as a bonafide student. The Principal at that time was Capt. T.K. Joseph. I had met Capt. Subramaniam, a Senior Lecturer before and thus knew him well.

Whilst going up in the lift, he joined in and as soon as he saw me he said “Welcome to the L.B.S. Nautical College." He then asked me about how we were managing with our lodging. Possibly because I was struggling to answer his questions, he looked straight at me and called me to his office. There I explained to him our situation with regard to our lodging.

He took me immediately to Capt. Rewari,  the Vice Principal, and introduced me to him.

As we were walking into his room, I observed that there was a long queue. Capt. Rewari was seated facing the entrance to the room. As soon as he saw us coming in, he told his peon who was standing at the entrance to his room, not to send anyone in until he is ready again to see them. Capt. Subramaniam did not waste any time and explained to Capt. Rewari about my problem. Whilst, he was still talking to him, Capt. Rewari got on the phone and spoke to someone about this matter. On putting the phone down, he gave me an address in Andheri West, in Bombay, and wanted my wife and I to be there at 6.00 p.m. that very day.

On reaching the address given by Capt. Rewari, we waited at the entrance to the building complex. At sharp 6.00 p.m.,  I saw him driving in. When he and his wife got off the car we walked up and greeted them. Thereafter, we got into the lift of the building and went up to the seventh floor. As soon as we came out of the lift, Capt. Rewari walked upto the entrance of one apartment and rang the door bell. A very fair and pretty lady opened the door and invited us in. She was introduced to us as Capt. Rewari’s niece. Her husband Tarun was sailing at that time..  

Capt. Rewari explained to his niece about us and our position with regard to lodging. He gave her the assurance that he would take the entire responsibility and requested her to give us their other apartment on the 6th floor of the same building. She had no hesitation and handed over the key of that apartment to her uncle.  After serving us with sweets and tea, we were taken to the apartment on the sixth floor. As soon as I walked in, I liked the place. Thank the Lord for finding us that place. It was heaven, and we moved in after two days. The rent we paid was a very nominal one. How helpful Capt. Rewari and Capt. Subramaniam were, on this matter. I simply have no words to express my gratefulness. 
May Capt.Rewari’s soul -Rest-in-Peace.

                                                  Photo of Andheri West - Four Bungalow

The Strait Of Magellan

Departure and crossing of the Atlantic

The Strait of Magellan cuts through the southern tip of South America connecting the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean.

On 10 August 1519, the five ships under Magellan's command – Trinidad, San Antonio, Concepción, Victoria and Santiago – left Seville and descended the Guadalquivir River to Sanlúcar de Barrameda, at the mouth of the river. There they remained more than five weeks. Finally they set sail on 20 September.

King Manuel I ordered a Portuguese naval detachment to pursue Magellan, but Magellan avoided them. After stopping at the Canary Islands, Magellan arrived at Cape Verde, where he set course for Cape St. Augustine in Brazil. On 27 November the expedition crossed the equator; on 6 December the crew sighted South America.

As Brazil was Portuguese territory, Magellan avoided it and on 13 December anchored near present-day Rio de Janeiro. There the crew was resupplied, but bad conditions caused them to delay. Afterwards, they continued to sail south along South America's east coast, looking for the strait that Magellan believed would lead to the Spice Islands. The fleet reached Río de la Plata on 10 January 1520.

For overwintering Magellan established a temporary settlement called Puerto San Julian on March 30, 1520. On Easter (April 1 and 2) a mutiny broke out involving three of the five ship captains. Magellan took quick and decisive action. Luis de Mendoza, the captain of Victoria, was killed by a party sent by Magellan and the ship was recovered. Then, after Concepcion's anchor cable had been secretly cut, the ship drifted towards the well-armed Trinidad, and Concepcion's captain, de Quesada, and his inner circle surrendered. Juan de Cartagena, the head of the mutineers on the San Antonio subsequently gave up. Antonio Pigafetta reported that Gaspar Quesada, the captain of Concepcion, and other mutineers were executed, while Juan de Cartagena, the captain of San Antonio, and a priest named Padre Sanchez de la Reina were marooned on the coast. Most of the men, including Juan Sebastián Elcano were needed and forgiven.[16] Reportedly those killed were drawn and quartered and impaled on the coast; years later, their bones were found by Sir Francis Drake. There is a replica of the Victoria that can be visited in Puerto San Julian.
The Strait of Magellan cuts through the southern tip of South America connecting the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean.

                         I wish all my dear friends a Merry Christmas and Prosperous New Year

Proceeding to Mumbai for studies

I signed off the ship in September 1984. And, I applied to Lal Bahadur Shastri Nautical College in Bombay to continue my studies for my next exam which was the First Mates' Foreign Going.   It is now called the Class II certificate. Thereafter, I received a letter from the Ministry of Shipping in India informing me that I had been accepted. 
Lal Bahadur Shastri Nautical College is one of the best Nautical Colleges in the world.  It had some of the world’s best lecturers including, Capt. T.K. Joseph (Extra Master), Late Capt. S.S.S. Rewari (Extra Master) and Capt. H. Subramaniam, (Extra Master).

During the planning of our trip to Bombay, I contacted our dear friends, Jude and Judy, and requested them to find a place for us to dwell during our stay there. In response to my request, my friend had replied stating that an Officer attached to the Ministry of Finance had agreed to give one of his flats in Bombay to us on rent. It was very good news.

With the help of God, we had almost everything in place prior to our departure. We left Sri Lanka for Bombay, India in November 1984. On arrival at the Bombay Airport our friends were there to meet us. We were then taken to a hotel in Bandra where our friends had planned to put us up for the night. It was good to be back in Bombay. As, during days of sailing, I always felt that Bombay was my second home port. Now a married man, and my wife being around, my life in Bombay was a bit restricted. We met our friends Jude and Judy after about a year therefore, they gave us an update of all what was happening there.

                                   Entrance L.B.S. Nautical & Engineering College, Mumbai
                                                    L.B.S. College in Mumbai

1520 Mutiny on Magellan's Expedition

For overwintering, Magellan established a temporary settlement called Puerto San Julian on March 30, 1520. On Easter (April 1 and 2), a mutiny broke out involving three of the five ship captains. 

Magellan took quick and decisive action. Luis de Mendoza, the captain of Victoria, was killed by a party sent by Magellan, and the ship was recovered. After Concepcion's anchor cable had been secretly cut by his forces, the ship drifted towards the well-armed Trinidad, and Concepcion's captain de Quesada and his inner circle surrendered. 

Juan de Cartagena, the head of the mutineers on the San Antonio, subsequently gave up. Antonio Pigafetta reported that Gaspar Quesada, the captain of Concepcion, and other mutineers were executed, while Juan de Cartagena, the captain of San Antonio, and a priest named Padre Sanchez de la Reina were marooned on the coast. Most of the men, including Juan Sebastián Elcano, were needed and forgiven. Reportedly those killed were drawn and quartered and impaled on the coast; years later, their bones were found by Sir Francis Drake.

Mendoza’s assassination. From this site.

Though Magellan made an example of the leaders, he pragmatically spared about 40 others after keeping them in chains and working the pumps for three months.